Articulation is the production of speech sounds. An articulation disorder occurs when a child does not make speech sounds correctly due to incorrect placement or movement of the lips, tongue, velum, and/or pharynx. It is important to recognize that there are differences in the age at which children produce specific speech sounds in all words and phrases. Mastering specific speech sounds may take place over the course of several years.
PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS DISORDER
Phonology refers to the speech sound system of language. A phonological disorder occurs when a child is not using speech-sound patterns appropriately. A child whose sounds vary from the speech typical for their stage of development or who produces unusual simplifications of sound combinations may be demonstrating a phonological disorder.
Stuttering is a communication disorder that involves disruptions/disfluencies in an individual’s speech. Stuttering often includes repetitions of words or parts of words, as well as prolongations of speech sounds.
CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER
Central Auditory Processing Disorder results in deficits in information processing of auditory signals. The deficits are not due to damages of the physical structures of function of the hearing mechanism, but arise from dysfunction of the central nervous system.
SOCIAL PRAGMATIC DISORDER
Children with social pragmatic difficulties demonstrate deficits in social and/or cognitive functioning. Diagnostic terms include: Asperger’s Syndrome, Hyperlexia, High Functioning Autism, Semantic-Pragmatic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorders NOS and Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities.
EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE DISORDER
Expressive language refers to the verbal skills required to communicate one’s thoughts and feelings to others. An expressive language disorder can be characterized as difficulty with verbal expression.
RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE DISORDER
Receptive language refers to the skills involved in understanding language. Receptive language disorders are difficulties regarding to processing, comprehending, and/or retaining spoken language.
APRAXIA OF SPEECH
Apraxia of speech is an impaired ability to plan and sequence the motor movements necessary to produce speech in the absence of any muscular problem.